PHP MySQL Test Page

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN”
    “http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd”&gt;
<html xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml&#8221; xml:lang=”en” lang=”en”>
<head>
<title>MySQL Connection Test</title>
<meta http-equiv=”Content-Type” content=”text/html; charset=iso-8859-1″ />
<style type=”text/css”>
#wrapper {
    width: 600px;
    margin: 20px auto 0;
    font: 1.2em Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;
}
input {
    font-size: 1em;
}
#submit {
    padding: 4px 8px;
}
</style>
</head>
 
<body>
 
<div id=”wrapper”>
 
<?php
    $action = htmlspecialchars($_GET[‘action’], ENT_QUOTES);
?>
 
<?php if (!$action) { ?>
 
    <h1>MySQL connection test</h1>
 
<form action=”<?php echo $_SERVER[‘PHP_SELF’]; ?>?action=test” id=”mail” method=”post”>
<!– <form action=”some_absolute_url” id=”mail” method=”post”> –>
    <table cellpadding=”2″>
        <tr>
            <td>Hostname</td>
            <td><input type=”text” name=”hostname” id=”hostname” value=”” size=”30″ tabindex=”1″ /></td>
            <td>(usually “localhost”)</td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
            <td>Username</td>
            <td><input type=”text” name=”username” id=”username” value=”” size=”30″ tabindex=”2″ /></td>
            <td></td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
            <td>Password</td>
            <td><input type=”text” name=”password” id=”password” value=”” size=”30″ tabindex=”3″ /></td>
            <td></td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
            <td>Database</td>
            <td><input type=”text” name=”database” id=”database” value=”” size=”30″ tabindex=”4″ /></td>
            <td>(optional)</td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
            <td></td>
            <td><input type=”submit” id=”submit” value=”Test Connection” tabindex=”5″ /></td>
            <td></td>
        </tr>
    </table>
 
</form>
 
<?php } ?>
 
<?php if ($action == “test”) {
 
// The variables have not been adequately sanitized to protect against SQL Injection attacks: http://us3.php.net/mysql_real_escape_string
 
    $hostname = trim($_POST[‘hostname’]);
    $username = trim($_POST[‘username’]);
    $password = trim($_POST[‘password’]);
    $database = trim($_POST[‘database’]);
 
    $link = mysql_connect(“$hostname”, “$username”, “$password”);
        if (!$link) {
            echo “<p>Could not connect to the server ‘” . $hostname . “‘</p>n”;
            echo mysql_error();
        }else{
            echo “<p>Successfully connected to the server ‘” . $hostname . “‘</p>n”;
//          printf(“MySQL client info: %sn”, mysql_get_client_info());
//          printf(“MySQL host info: %sn”, mysql_get_host_info());
//          printf(“MySQL server version: %sn”, mysql_get_server_info());
//          printf(“MySQL protocol version: %sn”, mysql_get_proto_info());
        }
    if ($link && !$database) {
        echo “<p>No database name was given. Available databases:</p>n”;
        $db_list = mysql_list_dbs($link);
        echo “<pre>n”;
        while ($row = mysql_fetch_array($db_list)) {
            echo $row[‘Database’] . “n”;
        }
        echo “</pre>n”;
    }
    if ($database) {
    $dbcheck = mysql_select_db(“$database”);
        if (!$dbcheck) {
            echo mysql_error();
        }else{
            echo “<p>Successfully connected to the database ‘” . $database . “‘</p>n”;
            // Check tables
            $sql = “SHOW TABLES FROM `$database`”;
            $result = mysql_query($sql);
            if (mysql_num_rows($result) > 0) {
                echo “<p>Available tables:</p>n”;
                echo “<pre>n”;
                while ($row = mysql_fetch_row($result)) {
                    echo “{$row[0]}n”;
                }
                echo “</pre>n”;
            } else {
                echo “<p>The database ‘” . $database . “‘ contains no tables.</p>n”;
                echo mysql_error();
            }
        }
    }
}
?>
 
</div><!– end #wrapper –>
</body>
</html>

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Super Quick & Simple Imgur Screenshotting – Debian/Ubuntu

Outcome:
Keyboard shortcut that will allow you to select an area on screen, then one second later the Imgur link is in your clipboard ready to paste.

Steps to install:

1) sudo apt-get install scrot curl zenity xclip
2) Copy the script below into an empty file, save as imgur.sh
3) chmod +x imgur.sh
4) Set a keyboard shortcut to run the script on keypress



#!/bin/bash
screenshot='screenshot';
nano=`date '+%d-%m-%y-%N'`;
extension='.png';
file="$HOME/Desktop/$screenshot-$nano$extension";

sleep 2; scrot -s -b -q 0 $file;

TEXT=$(curl -F "image"=@"$file" -F "key"="5d317f0bee23b282473522e1aa68f621" http://imgur.com/api/upload.xml | grep -Eo '<[a-z_]+>http[^<]+'|sed 's/^<.\|_./\U&/g;s/_/ /;s/<\(.*\)>/\1:\ /' | grep "Original" | awk '{print $3}' );

echo $TEXT | xclip;

exit 0



#######END#######

65 Million Colours Later

I was bored, as usual, so I wrote a php script that would iterate through every possible colour combination in HEX. It crashed firefox, and as a GNOME member I feel it is my duty to log a bug ‘Firefox core dumps when HTML file of 352mb is opened’. I don’t think it would be appreciated.

Anyway, although I didn’t have the opportunity to test if it worked, here is the php script i wrote to do the job, it might not even be the correct algorithm! I piped the output to html in an attempt to relieve the stress on the browser, to little avail.

The output html file is SO LARGE that the command ‘wc -l’ returns 8, and I am sure that there are more than 8 lines, since doing a ‘less’ on the file nearly grinds my Intel Core i3 to a halt. I then attempted a (crazy) ‘nl <file>.html’ (which produced an output worthy of a shoddy 90’s trilogy with Lawrence Fishbourne)…for 10 minutes before the command eventually gave up.

<html><head></head><body>

<table width=100%><tr>
<?php

# RED
for ($r=16; $r<255; $r++)
{
for ($g=16; $g<255; $g++)
{
for ($b=16; $b<255; $b++)
{
if ($r >15)
{
$r_hex_integer = (int) ($r / 16);
$r_hex_remainder = $r % 16;

if ($r_hex_integer <10) { $digit1 = $r_hex_integer; }

if ($r_hex_integer == 10) { $digit1 = “A”; }
if ($r_hex_integer == 11) { $digit1 = “B”; }
if ($r_hex_integer == 12) { $digit1 = “C”; }
if ($r_hex_integer == 13) { $digit1 = “D”; }
if ($r_hex_integer == 14) { $digit1 = “E”; }
if ($r_hex_integer == 15) { $digit1 = “F”; }

if ($r_hex_remainder == 10) { $digit2 = “A”; }
if ($r_hex_remainder == 11) { $digit2 = “B”; }
if ($r_hex_remainder == 12) { $digit2 = “C”; }
if ($r_hex_remainder == 13) { $digit2 = “D”; }
if ($r_hex_remainder == 14) { $digit2 = “E”; }
if ($r_hex_remainder == 15) { $digit2 = “F”; }

if ($r_hex_remainder <10) { $digit2 = $r_hex_remainder; }

}
else
{
if ($r <10) { $digit1 = 0; $digit2 = $r; }
if ($r == 10) { $digit1 = “A”; $digit2 = 0; }
if ($r == 11) { $digit1 = “B”; $digit2 = 0; }
if ($r == 12) { $digit1 = “C”; $digit2 = 0; }
if ($r == 13) { $digit1 = “D”; $digit2 = 0; }
if ($r == 14) { $digit1 = “E”; $digit2 = 0; }
if ($r == 15) { $digit1 = “F”; $digit2 = 0; }
}
if ($g >15)
{
$g_hex_integer = (int) ($g / 16);
$g_hex_remainder = $g % 16;

if ($g_hex_integer <10) { $digit3 = $g_hex_integer; }

if ($g_hex_integer == 10) { $digit3 = “A”; }
if ($g_hex_integer == 11) { $digit3 = “B”; }
if ($g_hex_integer == 12) { $digit3 = “C”; }
if ($g_hex_integer == 13) { $digit3 = “D”; }
if ($g_hex_integer == 14) { $digit3 = “E”; }
if ($g_hex_integer == 15) { $digit3 = “F”; }

if ($g_hex_remainder == 10) { $digit4 = “A”; }
if ($g_hex_remainder == 11) { $digit4 = “B”; }
if ($g_hex_remainder == 12) { $digit4 = “C”; }
if ($g_hex_remainder == 13) { $digit4 = “D”; }
if ($g_hex_remainder == 14) { $digit4 = “E”; }
if ($g_hex_remainder == 15) { $digit4 = “F”; }

if ($g_hex_remainder <10) { $digit4 = $g_hex_remainder; }

}
else
{
if ($g <10) { $digit3 = 0; $digit4 = $g; }
if ($g == 10) { $digit3 = “A”; $digit4 = 0; }
if ($g == 11) { $digit3 = “B”; $digit4 = 0; }
if ($g == 12) { $digit3 = “C”; $digit4 = 0; }
if ($g == 13) { $digit3 = “D”; $digit4 = 0; }
if ($g == 14) { $digit3 = “E”; $digit4 = 0; }
if ($g == 15) { $digit3 = “F”; $digit4 = 0; }
}
if ($b >15)
{
$b_hex_integer = (int) ($b / 16);
$b_hex_remainder = $b % 16;

if ($b_hex_integer <10) { $digit5 = $b_hex_integer; }

if ($b_hex_integer == 10) { $digit5 = “A”; }
if ($b_hex_integer == 11) { $digit5 = “B”; }
if ($b_hex_integer == 12) { $digit5 = “C”; }
if ($b_hex_integer == 13) { $digit5 = “D”; }
if ($b_hex_integer == 14) { $digit5 = “E”; }
if ($b_hex_integer == 15) { $digit5 = “F”; }

if ($b_hex_remainder == 10) { $digit6 = “A”; }
if ($b_hex_remainder == 11) { $digit6 = “B”; }
if ($b_hex_remainder == 12) { $digit6 = “C”; }
if ($b_hex_remainder == 13) { $digit6 = “D”; }
if ($b_hex_remainder == 14) { $digit6 = “E”; }
if ($b_hex_remainder == 15) { $digit6 = “F”; }

if ($b_hex_remainder <10) { $digit6 = $b_hex_remainder; }

}
else
{
if ($g <10) { $digit5 = 0; $digit6 = $b; }
if ($b == 10) { $digit5 = “A”; $digit6 = 0; }
if ($b == 11) { $digit5 = “B”; $digit6 = 0; }
if ($b == 12) { $digit5 = “C”; $digit6 = 0; }
if ($b == 13) { $digit5 = “D”; $digit6 = 0; }
if ($b == 14) { $digit5 = “E”; $digit6 = 0; }
if ($b == 15) { $digit5 = “F”; $digit6 = 0; }
}
echo ‘<td bgcolor=”#’. $digit1. $digit2. $digit3. $digit4. $digit5. $digit6. ‘”>’;
echo ‘</td>’;
} #Close BLUE
echo ‘</tr><tr>’;
} #Close GREEN
} #Close RED
?>
</tr>
</table>
</body>

</html>

nl grinds to a halt:

Image

The size of the resulting HTML

Image

A whole lotta linux (ubuntu) commands

A massive collection of linux commands, some of which may only apply to ubuntu, I was writing a script to gather this list, so i thought I might just stick it up here for anyone who might use it.

THERE MAY BE DUPLICATES….so…

The script I created to gather the list is shown below:

#!/bin/bash

## Get commands and definitions

OUT_FILE=”./cmds.txt”
manPages=$(printf “%s\n” ${PATH//:/\/* })

for WORD in $manPages
do
    line=$(man $WORD | awk ‘NR==6 {print}’ )
    echo $line
    echo $line >> $OUT_FILE
    sleep 2s
done

1    a2enmod, a2dismod – enable or disable an apache2 module
2    a2enmod, a2dismod – enable or disable an apache2 module
3    a2ensite, a2dissite – enable or disable an apache2 site / virtual host
6    aa-audit – set a AppArmor security profile to audit mode.
7    aa-autodep – guess basic AppArmor profile requirements
8    aa-complain – set a AppArmor security profile to complain mode.
9    aa-decode – decode hex-encoded in AppArmor log files
10    aa-disable – disable an AppArmor security profile
11    aa-enforce – set an AppArmor security profile to enforce mode from being
12    aa-genprof – profile generation utility for AppArmor
13    aa-logprof – utility program for managing AppArmor security profiles
14    aa-status – display various information about the current AppArmor policy.
15    aa-unconfined – output a list of processes with tcp or udp ports that do not
16    aa-update-browser – update browser profiles with browser abstractions
17    accept – accept a connection on a socket
18    accessdb – dumps the content of a man-db database in a human readable format.
19    acpid – Advanced Configuration and Power Interface event daemon
20    adduser, addgroup – add a user or group to the system
21    add-shell – add shells to the list of valid login shells
22    adduser, addgroup – add a user or group to the system
23    anacron – runs commands periodically
24    apache2 – Apache Hypertext Transfer Protocol Server
25    apache2ctl – Apache HTTP server control interface
26    apache2ctl – Apache HTTP server control interface
27    aa-status – display various information about the current AppArmor policy.
28    aptd – package managing daemon proving a D-Bus interface
29    arp – manipulate the system ARP cache
30    arpd – userspace arp daemon.
31    aspell-autobuildhash – Autobuilding aspell hash files for some dicts
32    atd – run jobs queued for later execution
33    avahi-autoipd – IPv4LL network address configuration daemon
34    avahi-daemon – The Avahi mDNS/DNS-SD daemon
35    bccmd – Utility for the CSR BCCMD interface
36    biosdecode – BIOS information decoder
37    bluetoothd – Bluetooth daemon
38    chat – Automated conversational script with a modem
39    check_forensic – tool to extract mod_log_forensic output from apache log files
40    checkgid – checks the gid
41    chgpasswd – update group passwords in batch mode
42    chpasswd – update passwords in batch mode
43    chroot – run command or interactive shell with special root directory
44    computer-janitor – clean up a system installation
45    computer-janitor-gtk – remove cruft from system (GUI version)
46    cppw, cpgr – copy with locking the given file to the password or group file
47    cppw, cpgr – copy with locking the given file to the password or group file
48    cron – daemon to execute scheduled commands (Vixie Cron)
49    cupsaccept/cupsreject – accept/reject jobs sent to a destination
50    cupsaddsmb – export printers to samba for windows clients
51    cupsctl – configure cupsd.conf options
52    cupsd – cups scheduler
53    cupsdisable, cupsenable – stop/start printers and classes
54    cupsdisable, cupsenable – stop/start printers and classes
55    cupsfilter – convert a file to another format using cups filters
56    cups-genppdupdate – update CUPS+Gutenprint PPD files
57    cupsaccept/cupsreject – accept/reject jobs sent to a destination
58    cytune – Tune driver parameters for Cyclades-Z multiport serial card
59    defoma-reconfigure – Reconfigure all from zero.
60    deluser, delgroup – remove a user or group from the system
61    deluser, delgroup – remove a user or group from the system
62    dmidecode – DMI table decoder
63    dnsmasq – A lightweight DHCP and caching DNS server.
64    dpkg-divert – override a package’s version of a file
65    dpkg-preconfigure – let packages ask questions prior to their installation
66    dpkg-reconfigure – reconfigure an already installed package
67    dpkg-statoverride – override ownership and mode of files
68    e2freefrag – report free space fragmentation information
69    fdformat – Low-level formats a floppy disk
70    filefrag – report on file fragmentation
71    foomatic-addpjloptions – Format PJL option information the for foomatic database
72    program also runs # when Foomatic is not installed.
73    foomatic-getpjloptions – <put a short description here>
74    foomatic-kitload – installs a data kit into the foomatic database.
75    use Foomatic::Defaults; use Foomatic::DB qw/get_overview/; #
76    foomatic-preferred-driver – <put a short description here>
77    of the source # tarball of Gutenprint 5.0.x or later. # # Re‐
78    use Foomatic::Defaults; use Foomatic::DB;
79    gconf-schemas – register gconf schemas with the gconf database
80    groupadd – create a new group
81    groupdel – delete a group
82    groupmod – modify a group definition on the system
83    grpck – verify integrity of group files
84    pwconv, pwunconv, grpconv, grpunconv – convert to and from shadow passwords and
85    pwconv, pwunconv, grpconv, grpunconv – convert to and from shadow passwords and
86    grub-install – install GRUB to a device
87    grub-mkconfig – generate a GRUB configuration file
88    grub-mkdevicemap – generate a GRUB device map file automatically
89    grub-mknetdir – prepare a GRUB netboot directory.
90    grub-probe – probe device information for GRUB
91    grub-reboot – set the default boot entry for GRUB, for the next boot only
92    grub-set-default – set the saved default boot entry for GRUB
93    grub-setup – set up a device to boot using GRUB
94    hciattach – attach serial devices via UART HCI to BlueZ stack
95    hciconfig – configure Bluetooth devices
96    hciemu – HCI emulator
97    hcitrace – hcitrace daemon
98    cense, or # (at your option) any later version. # # This program
99    htcacheclean – Clean up the disk cache
100    httxt2dbm – Generate dbm files for use with RewriteMap
101    iconvconfig – Create fastloading iconv module configuration file
102    install-docs – manage online Debian documentation
103    install-info – wrapper around GNU install-info
104    install-sgmlcatalog – maintain transitional SGML catalog
105    invoke-rc.d – executes System-V style init script actions
106    iptables-apply – a safer way to update iptables remotely
107    iptables-apply – a safer way to update iptables remotely
108    irqbalance – distribute hardware interrupts across processors on a multiproces‐
109    ispell-autobuildhash – Autobuilding the ispell hash file for some dicts
110    kerneloops – program to collect and submit kernel oopses to kerneloops.org
111    laptop-detect – attempt to detect a laptop
112    ldattach – attach a line discipline to a serial line
113    locale-gen – compile a list of locale definition files
114    logrotate – rotates, compresses, and mails system logs
115    lpadmin – configure cups printers and classes
116    lpc – line printer control program
117    lpinfo – show available devices or drivers
118    lpmove – move a job or all jobs to a new destination
119    lsusb – list USB devices
120    make-ssl-cert – Debconf wrapper for openssl
121    mkinitramfs – low-level tool for generating an initramfs image
122    mkinitramfs-kpkg – generates an initramfs image for kernel-package
123    mklost+found – create a lost+found directory on a mounted Linux second extended
124    mkntfs – create an NTFS file system
125    wodim – write data to optical disk media
126    NetworkManager – network management daemon
127    newusers – update and create new users in batch
128    nologin – politely refuse a login
129    ntfsclone – Efficiently clone, image, restore or rescue an NTFS
130    ntfscp – copy file to an NTFS volume.
131    ntfslabel – display/change the label on an ntfs file system
132    ntfsresize – resize an NTFS filesystem without data loss
133    ntfsundelete – recover a deleted file from an NTFS volume.
134    ntpdate – set the date and time via NTP
135    ntpdate-debian – set the date and time via NTP
136    ownership – Compaq ownership tag retriever
137    pam-auth-update – manage PAM configuration using packaged profiles
138    pam_getenv – get environment variables from /etc/environment
139    paperconfig – configure the system default paper size
140    pm-action – Suspend or Hibernate your computer
141    pm-powersave – Put your computer into low power mode
142    pm-action – Suspend or Hibernate your computer
143    pm-action – Suspend or Hibernate your computer
144    popcon-largest-unused – List size of unused packages
145    popularity-contest – list the most popular Debian packages
146    pppconfig – configure pppd to connect to the Internet
147    pppd – Point-to-Point Protocol Daemon
148    pppdump – convert PPP record file to readable format
149    pppoeconf — configures a PPPoE (ADSL) connection
150    pppoe-discovery – perform PPPoE discovery
151    pppstats – print PPP statistics
152    pptp – PPTP driver
153    pptpsetup – Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol setup
154    pwck – verify integrity of password files
155    pwconv, pwunconv, grpconv, grpunconv – convert to and from shadow passwords and
156    pwconv, pwunconv, grpconv, grpunconv – convert to and from shadow passwords and
157    radeontool — utility to get/set registers and to control backlight on radeon
158    rdev – query/set image root device, RAM disk size, or video mode
159    rdev – query/set image root device, RAM disk size, or video mode
160    readprofile – a tool to read kernel profiling information
161    remove-default-ispell – remove default ispell dictionary
162    remove-default-wordlist – remove default wordlist
163    remove-shell – remove shells from the list of valid login shells
164    rfkill – tool for enabling and disabling wireless devices
165    rdev – query/set image root device, RAM disk size, or video mode
166    rotatelogs – Piped logging program to rotate Apache logs
167    rsyslogd – reliable and extended syslogd
168    rtcwake – enter a system sleep state until specified wakeup time
169    rtkitctl – Realtime Policy and Watchdog daemon control
170    safe_finger – finger client wrapper that protects against nasty stuff from fin‐
171    saned – SANE network daemon
172    select-default-ispell – select default ispell dictionary
173    select-default-wordlist – select default wordlist
174    setvesablank – Turn VESA screen blanking on or off
175    split-logfile – Split combined virtual hosts access log into one file per vir‐
176    synaptic – graphical management of software packages
177    system-tools-backends – message dispatcher for system-tools-backends
178    tcpd – access control facility for internet services
179    tcpdchk – tcp wrapper configuration checker
180    tcpdmatch – tcp wrapper oracle
181    tcpdump – dump traffic on a network
182    toshsat1800-irdasetup – IrDA setup utility for Toshiba Satellite 1800
183    try-from – test program for the tcp_wrapper
184    tunelp – set various parameters for the lp device
185    ufw – program for managing a netfilter firewall
186    update-alternatives – maintain symbolic links determining default commands
187    update-apt-xapian-index – rebuild the Apt Xapian Index
188    update-ca-certificates – update /etc/ssl/certs and certificates.crt
189    update-catalog – create or update entry in SGML catalog file
190    update-dictcommon-aspell – rebuild aspell database and emacsen stuff
191    update-default-ispell – update default ispell dictionary
192    update-default-wordlist – update default wordlist
193    update-dictcommon-aspell – rebuild aspell database and emacsen stuff
194    update-dictcommon-hunspell – rebuild hunspell database and emacsen stuff
195    update-fonts-alias – compile fonts.alias files
196    update-fonts-dir – compile fonts.dir files
197    update-fonts-scale – generate fonts.scale files
198    update-grub, update-grub2 – stub for grub-mkconfig
199    update-grub, update-grub2 – stub for grub-mkconfig
200    script/cidfmap.d/ FONTMDIR=/etc/ghostscript/fontmap.d/
201    update-icon-caches – Update wrapper script for the icon caches
202    update-inetd – create, remove, enable or disable entry in /etc/inetd.conf
203    update-info-dir – (re-)create /usr/share/info/dir from all installed info files
204    update-initramfs – generate an initramfs image
205    update-java-alternatives – update alternatives for jre/sdk installations
206    fault/locale”;
207    update-mime – create or update MIME information
208    update-openoffice-dicts – rebuild dictionary.lst for OpenOffice.org
209    update-passwd – safely update /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow and /etc/group
210    update-python-modules – byte-compile python modules
211    update-rc.d – install and remove System-V style init script links
212    update-rc.d-insserv – obsolete
213    update-software-center – Update the database for software-center
214    update-usbids – download new version of the USB ID list
215    update-xmlcatalog – maintain XML catalog files
216    usb_modeswitch – switch mode of “multi-state” USB devices
217    check on newly discovered USB devices and calls # the mode
218    usbmuxd – iPhone/iPod Touch USB multiplex server daemon
219    useradd – create a new user or update default new user information
220    userdel – delete a user account and related files
221    usermod – modify a user account
222    uuidd – UUID generation daemon
223    vbetool – run real-mode video BIOS code to alter hardware state
224    vcstime – Show time in upper right hand corner of the console screen
225    rdev – query/set image root device, RAM disk size, or video mode
226    vipw, vigr – edit the password, group, shadow-password or shadow-group file
227    vipw, vigr – edit the password, group, shadow-password or shadow-group file
228    visudo – edit the sudoers file
229    vpddecode – VPD structure decoder
230    zic – time zone compiler
231    test – check file types and compare values
232    a2p – Awk to Perl translator
233    ab – Apache HTTP server benchmarking tool
234    aconnect – ALSA sequencer connection manager
235    acpi_listen – ACPI event listener
236    add-apt-repository – Adds a repository into the /etc/apt/sources.list or
237    addpart – simple wrapper around the “add partition” ioctl
238    addr2line – convert addresses into file s and line numbers.
239    alacarte – edit freedesktop.org menus
240    alsaloop – command-line PCM loopback
241    alsamixer – soundcard mixer for ALSA soundcard driver, with ncurses interface
242    sound.so.2__gmon_start___Jv_RegisterClassess‐
243    amidi – read from and write to ALSA RawMIDI ports
244    amixer – command-line mixer for ALSA soundcard driver
245    your option) any later version. # # Mtools is distributed in the
246    arecord, aplay – command-line sound recorder and player for ALSA soundcard
247    aplaymidi – play Standard MIDI Files
248    apport-bug, apport-collect – file a bug report using Apport, or update an exist‐
249    apport-cli, apport-gtk, apport-kde – Apport user interfaces for reporting prob‐
250    apport-bug, apport-collect – file a bug report using Apport, or update an exist‐
251    apport-unpack – extract the fields of a problem report to separate files
252    appres – list X application resource database
253    apropos – search the manual page s and descriptions
254    ties from softwareproperties.ppa import expand_ppa_line from apt‐
255    apt-cache – query the APT cache
256    apt-cdrom – APT CDROM management utility
257    apt-config – APT Configuration Query program
258    aptdcon – command line client for aptdaemon
259    apt-extracttemplates – Utility to extract DebConf config and templates from
260    apt-ftparchive – Utility to generate index files
261    apt-get – APT package handling utility — command-line interface
262    apt-key – APT key management utility
263    apt-mark – mark/unmark a package as being automatically-installed
264    apt-sortpkgs – Utility to sort package index files
265    apturl – graphical apt-protocol interpreting package installer
266    apturl – graphical apt-protocol interpreting package installer
267    ar – create, modify, and extract from archives
268    arch – print machine hardware  (same as u -m)
269    arecord, aplay – command-line sound recorder and player for ALSA soundcard
270    arecordmidi – record Standard MIDI Files
271    arping – send ARP REQUEST to a neighbour host
272    AS – the portable GNU assembler.
273    aseqdump – show the events received at an ALSA sequencer port
274    aseqnet – ALSA sequencer connectors over network
275    aspell – interactive spell checker
276    aspell-import – import old personal dictionaries into GNU Aspell
277    at, batch, atq, atrm – queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution
278    bitmap, bmtoa, atobm – bitmap editor and converter utilities for the X Window
279    at, batch, atq, atrm – queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution
280    at, batch, atq, atrm – queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution
281    avahi-browse – Browse for mDNS/DNS-SD services using the Avahi daemon
282    avahi-browse – Browse for mDNS/DNS-SD services using the Avahi daemon
283    avahi-publish-service – Register an mDNS/DNS-SD service or host  or address
284    avahi-publish-service – Register an mDNS/DNS-SD service or host  or address
285    avahi-publish-service – Register an mDNS/DNS-SD service or host  or address
286    avahi-resolve – Resolve one or more mDNS/DNS host (s) to IP address(es) (and
287    avahi-resolve – Resolve one or more mDNS/DNS host (s) to IP address(es) (and
288    avahi-resolve – Resolve one or more mDNS/DNS host (s) to IP address(es) (and
289    avahi-set-host- – Change mDNS host
290    mawk – pattern scanning and text processing language
291    axi-cache – query the Apt Xapian Index
292    Banshee – Media Management and Playback application
293    Baobab – A graphical tool to analyse disk usage
294    base64 – base64 encode/decode data and print to standard output
295    base – strip directory and suffix from files
296    bashbug – report a bug in bash
297    at, batch, atq, atrm – queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution
298    bc – An arbitrary precision calculator language
299    bdftopcf – convert X font from Bitmap Distribution Format to Portable Compiled
300    bdftruncate – generate truncated BDF font from ISO 10646-1-encoded BDF font
301    bf_compact – shell script to compact a bogofilter directory
302    bf_compact – shell script to compact a bogofilter directory
303    bf_copy – shell script to copy a bogofilter working directory
304    bf_copy – shell script to copy a bogofilter working directory
305    bf_tar – shell script to write a tar file of a bogofilter directory to stdout
306    bf_tar – shell script to write a tar file of a bogofilter directory to stdout
307    bitmap, bmtoa, atobm – bitmap editor and converter utilities for the X Window
308    bluetooth-agent – Bluetooth pass agent
309    bluetooth-applet – GNOME applet for prompting the user for a Bluetooth passkey
310    bluetooth-properties – GTK dialog for managing properties of the Linux Bluetooth
311    bluetooth-sendto – GTK application for transfering files over Bluetooth
312    bluetooth-wizard – GTK wizard for setting up devices with the Linux Bluetooth
313    bluez-simple-agent – A PIN management and agent program for pairing to Bluetooth
314    bitmap, bmtoa, atobm – bitmap editor and converter utilities for the X Window
315    bogofilter – fast Bayesian spam filter
316    bogofilter – fast Bayesian spam filter
317    bogolexer – Utility program for separating email messages into tokens
318    bogolexer – Utility program for separating email messages into tokens
319    bogotune – find optimum parameter settings for bogofilter
320    bogotune – find optimum parameter settings for bogofilter
321    bogoupgrade – upgrades bogofilter database to current version
322    bogoupgrade – upgrades bogofilter database to current version
323    bogoutil – Dumps, loads, and maintains bogofilter database files
324    bogoutil – Dumps, loads, and maintains bogofilter database files
325    brasero – Simple and easy to use CD/DVD burning application for the Gnome Desk‐
326    BTCFLASH – firmware flash utility for BTC DRW1008 DVD+/-RW recorder.
327    gcc – GNU project C and C++ compiler
328    c2ph, pstruct – Dump C structures as generated from “cc -g -S” stabs
329    calibrate_ppa – pnm2ppa calibration tool
330    cancel – cancel jobs
331    captoinfo – convert a termcap description into a terminfo description
332    catchsegv – Catch segmentation faults in programs
333    catman – create or update the pre-formatted manual pages
334    gcc – GNU project C and C++ compiler
335    c++filt – Demangle C++ and Java symbols.
336    chage – change user password expiry information
337    chardet – universal character encoding detector
338    gucharmap – Unicode character picker and font browser
339    chattr – change file attributes on a Linux file system
340    chcon – change file security context
341    checkbox, checkbox-cli, checkbox-urwid, checkbox-gtk – Application for system
342    check-language-support – returns the list of missing packages in order to pro‐
343    chfn – change real user  and information
344    chkdupexe – find duplicate executables
345    chrt – manipulate real-time attributes of a process
346    chsh – change login shell
347    ciptool – Bluetooth Common ISDN Access Profile (CIP)
348    ckbcomp – compile a XKB keyboard description to a keymap suitable for loadkeys
349    cksum – checksum and count the bytes in a file
350    clear – clear the terminal screen
351    clear_console – clear the console
352    mono – Mono’s ECMA-CLI native code generator (Just-in-Time and Ahead-of-Time)
353    gacutil – Global Assembly Cache management utility.
354    cmp – compare two files byte by byte
355    codepage – extract a codepage from an MSDOS codepage file
356    comm – compare two sorted files line by line
357    compiz – OpenGL window and compositing manager
358    compiz-decorator – Automatic decorator loader
359    run-mailcap, view, see, edit, compose, print – execute programs via entries in
360    config_data – Query or change configuration of Perl modules
361    corelist – a commandline frontend to Module::CoreList
362    cpan – easily interact with CPAN from the command line
363    cpan2dist – The CPANPLUS distribution creator
364    cpanp – The CPANPLUS launcher
365    $rv = do($0); # execute the file die $@ if $@;
366    cpp – The C Preprocessor
367    cpp – The C Preprocessor
368    cpufreq-selector — tool to set CPU frequency
369    c_rehash – Create symbolic links to files d by the hash values
370    crontab – maintain crontab files for individual users (Vixie Cron)
371    csharp, gsharp – Interactive C# Shell
372    csplit – split a file into sections determined by context lines
373    lnstat – unified linux network statistics
374    cups-calibrate – ESP CUPS Printer Calibration Tool
375    cupstestdsc – test conformance of postscript files
376    cupstestppd – test conformance of ppd files
377    cut – remove sections from each line of files
378    cvt – calculate VESA CVT mode lines
379    dbmmanage – Manage user authentication files in DBM format
380    dbus-launch – Utility to start a message bus from a shell script
381    dbus-monitor – debug probe to print message bus messages
382    dbus-send – Send a message to a message bus
383    dc – an arbitrary precision calculator
384    ddate – converts Gregorian dates to Discordian dates
385    deallocvt – deallocate unused virtual consoles
386    debconf – run a debconf-using program
387    debconf-apt-progress – install packages using debconf to display a progress bar
388    debconf-communicate – communicate with debconf
389    debconf-copydb – copy a debconf database
390    debconf-escape – helper when working with debconf’s escape capability
391    debconf-set-selections – insert new default values into the debconf database
392    debconf-show – query the debconf database
393    defoma – Debian Font Manager, a framework for automatic font configuration.
394    defoma-app – configure a specific application about fonts registered in Debian
395    defoma-font – register/unregister font(s) to Debian Font Manager
396    defoma-hints – generate font hints.
397    defoma-id – Manage id-cache of Debian Font Manager
398    defoma-subst – Modify a rulefile of Defoma font substitution system.
399    defoma-user – Debian Font Manager for users
400    delpart – simple wrapper around the “del partition” ioctl
401    desktop-file-install – Install desktop files
402    desktop-file-validate – Validate desktop entry files
403    devdump, isoinfo, isovfy, isodump – Utility programs for dumping and verifying
404    dfutool – Device Firmware Upgrade utility
405    dh_bash-completion – install bash completions for package
406    dh_installdefoma – install a defoma related scripts
407    dh_installxmlcatalogs – install and register XML catalog files
408    dh_pycentral – use the python-central framework to handle Python modules and
409    dh_pysupport – use the python-support framework to handle Python modules
410    dh_python2 – calculates Python dependencies, adds maintainer scripts to byte
411    diff – compare files line by line
412    diff3 – compare three files line by line
413    diffstat – make histogram from diff-output
414    dig – DNS lookup utility
415    dircolors – color setup for ls
416    dir – strip last component from file
417    dirsplit – splits directory into multiple with equal size
418    do-release-upgrade – manual page for do-release-upgrade
419    dotlockfile – Utility to manage lockfiles
420    dpkg – package manager for Debian
421    dpkg-architecture – set and determine the architecture for package building
422    dpkg-buildflags – returns build flags to use during package build
423    dpkg-buildpackage – build binary or source packages from sources
424    dpkg-checkbuilddeps – check build dependencies and conflicts
425    dpkg-deb – Debian package archive (.deb) manipulation tool
426    dpkg-distaddfile – add entries to debian/files
427    dpkg-divert – override a package’s version of a file
428    dpkg-genchanges – generate Debian .changes files
429    dpkg-gencontrol – generate Debian control files
430    dpkg-gensymbols – generate symbols files (shared library dependency information)
431    dpkg-maintscript-helper – works around known dpkg limitations in maintainer
432    dpkg-mergechangelogs – 3-way merge of debian/changelog files
433    dpkg- – re Debian packages to full package s
434    dpkg-parsechangelog – parse Debian changelog files
435    dpkg-query – a tool to query the dpkg database
436    dpkg-scanpackages – create Packages index files
437    dpkg-scansources – create Sources index files
438    dpkg-shlibdeps – generate shared library substvar dependencies
439    dpkg-source – Debian source package (.dsc) manipulation tool
440    dpkg-split – Debian package archive split/join tool
441    dpkg-statoverride – override ownership and mode of files
442    dpkg-trigger – a package trigger utility
443    dpkg-vendor – queries information about distribution vendors
444    dprofpp – display perl profile data
445    du – estimate file space usage
446    dumpkeys – dump keyboard translation tables
447    dev-ram-control – checks features of DVD-RAM discs
448    dvd+rw-booktype – format DVD+-RW/-RAM disk with a logical format
449    dvd+rw-format – format DVD+-RW/-RAM disk
450    dvd+rw-mediainfo – display information about dvd drive and disk
451    dvipdf – Convert TeX DVI file to PDF using ghostscript and dvips
452    dwell-click-applet – Dwell click remote control applet
453    run-mailcap, view, see, edit, compose, print – execute programs via entries in
454    nano – Nano’s ANOther editor, an enhanced free Pico clone
455    editres – a dynamic resource editor for X Toolkit applications
456    eject – eject removable media
457    elfedit – Update the ELF header of ELF files.
458    empathy – GNOME multi-protocol chat and call client
459    empathy-accounts – Accounts configuration dialog for Empathy instant messaging
460    enc2xs — Perl Encode Module Generator
461    Enchant – a spellchecker
462    env – run a program in a modified environment
463    envsubst – substitutes environment variables in shell format strings
464    eog – a GNOME image viewer
465    ps2ps, eps2eps – Ghostscript PostScript “distiller”
466    eqn – format equations for troff or MathML
467    esc-m – ease viewing output of driver data
468    esdcompat – PulseAudio ESD wrapper script
469    espeak – A multi-lingual software speech synthesizer.
470    evince – GNOME document viewer
471    evince-thumbnailer – create png thumbnails from PostScript and PDF documents
472    evolution – groupware suite for GNOME containing e-mail, calendar, addressbook,
473    exiv2 – Image metadata manipulation tool
474    expand – convert tabs to spaces
475    expiry – check and enforce password expiration policy
476    expr – evaluate expressions
477    factor – factor numbers
478    faillog – display faillog records or set login failure limits
479    faked – daemon that remembers fake ownership/permissions of files manipulated by
480    fakeroot – run a command in an environment faking root privileges for file
481    fallocate – preallocate space to a file.
482    fc-cache – build font information cache files
483    fc-cat – read font information cache files
484    fc-list – list available fonts
485    fc-match – match available fonts
486    fc-query – query font files
487    fc-scan – scan font files or directories
488    file-roller – archive manager for GNOME
489    find – search for files in a directory hierarchy
490    find2perl – translate find command lines to Perl code
491    findsmb – list info about machines that respond to SMB  queries on a subnet
492    firefox – a free and open source web browser from Mozilla
493    flock – Manage locks from shell scripts
494    fmt – simple optimal text formatter
495    fold – wrap each input line to fit in specified width
496    font2c – Write PostScript Type 0 or Type 1 font as C code
497    text as _
498    fonttosfnt – Wrap a bitmap font in a sfnt (TrueType) wrapper
499    foomatic-combo-xml – <put a short description here>
500    foomatic-compiledb – Compile the Foomatic printer/driver database
501    foomatic-configure – the main configuration program of the foomatic printing
502    foomatic-ppdfile – Generate a PPD file for a given printer/driver combo
503    foomatic-perl-data – generate Perl data structures from XML
504    foomatic-ppdfile – Generate a PPD file for a given printer/driver combo
505    foomatic-ppd-options – show the PPD options
506    foomatic-printjob – manage printer jobs in a spooler-independent fashion
507    free – Display amount of free and used memory in the system
508    fribidi – a command line interface for the fribidi library, converts a logical
509    fslsfonts – list fonts served by X font server
510    fstobdf – generate BDF font from X font server
511    funzip – filter for extracting from a ZIP archive in a pipe
512    gcc – GNU project C and C++ compiler
513    gcc – GNU project C and C++ compiler
514    gacutil – Global Assembly Cache management utility.
515    gacutil – Global Assembly Cache management utility.
516    gamma4scanimage – create a gamma table for scanimage
517    gcalccmd – a console calculator
518    gcalctool – a desktop calculator
519    gcc – GNU project C and C++ compiler
520    gcc – GNU project C and C++ compiler
521    gconf-editor – an editor for the GConf configuration system
522    gconftool-2 – GNOME configuration tool
523    gconftool-2 – GNOME configuration tool
524    gcore – Generate a core file for a running process
525    gcov – coverage testing tool
526    gcov – coverage testing tool
527    gdb – The GNU Debugger
528    gdb – The GNU Debugger
529    gdbus – Introspect and call remote objects
530    gedit – text editor for the GNOME Desktop
531    gencat – Generate message catalog
532    genisoimage – create ISO9660/Joliet/HFS filesystem with optional Rock Ridge
533    eqn – format equations for troff or MathML
534    lwp-request, GET, POST, HEAD – Simple command line user agent
535    getconf – Query system configuration variables
536    geteltorito – an El Torito boot image extractor
537    getent – get entries from administrative database
538    gethostip — convert an IP address into various formats
539    getkeycodes – print kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table
540    getopt – parse command options (enhanced)
541    gettext – translate message
542    gettextize – install or upgrade gettext infrastructure
543    gs – Ghostscript (PostScript and PDF language interpreter and previewer)
544    ginn – Gesture to Keypress / Mouse Button injector
545    ginstall-info – update info/dir entries
546    gio-querymodules – GIO module cache creation
547    git – the stupid content tracker
548    git-receive-pack – Receive what is pushed into the repository
549    git-shell – Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access
550    git-upload-archive – Send archive back to git-archive
551    git-upload-pack – Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack
552    gksu – GTK+ frontend for su and sudo
553    gksu – GTK+ frontend for su and sudo
554    gksu-properties – Configure the behaviour of gksu
555    glib-compile-schemas – GSettings schema compiler
556    mcs, gmcs, smcs – Mono C# Compiler (1.0, 2.0, Moonlight)
557    gnome-about – Learn more about GNOME
558    gcalctool – a desktop calculator
559    gucharmap – Unicode character picker and font browser
560    gnome-control-center — Desktop properties manager
561    gnome-desktop-item-edit — tool to edit .desktop file
562    yelp — browse system documentation
563    gnome-keyboard-properties – manage keyboard behaviour in GNOME
564    gnome-keyring-daemon – keep password and other secrets for users
565    gnome-language-selector – graphical language selection utility
566    gnome-open – Open files and URLs using the GNOME file handlers
567    gnome-panel – Display the GNOME panel
568    gnome-power-manager – gnome power manager userspace daemon
569    gnome-power-preferences – gnome power preferences gui
570    gnome-power-statistics – gnome power statistics gui
571    gnome-screensaver – screen saver and locker
572    gnome-screensaver-command – controls GNOME screensaver
573    gnome-screensaver-preferences – configure GNOME Screensaver
574    gnome-screenshot – capture the screen, a window, or an user-defined area and
575    gnome-search-tool – the GNOME Search Tool
576    gnome-session – Start the GNOME desktop environment
577    gnome-session-properties – Configure applications to start on login
578    gnome-session-save – End or save the current GNOME session
579    gnome-settings-daemon – Handles the GNOME session settings
580    gnome-sound-recorder – simple sound recorder
581    gnome-system-log – the GNOME System Log Viewer
582    gnome-system-monitor — view and control processes
583    gnome-terminal — is a terminal emulation application.
584    gnome-terminal — is a terminal emulation application.
585    gedit – text editor for the GNOME Desktop
586    gnome-volume-control – Sound volume controller
587    gnome-wm – Start the window manager configured by the user
588    gpasswd – administer /etc/group and /etc/gshadow
589    gpg – OpenPGP encryption and signing tool
590    gpgsplit – Split an OpenPGP message into packets
591    gpgv – Verify OpenPGP signatures
592    gpg-zip – encrypt or sign files into an archive
593    pic – compile pictures for troff or TeX
594    gprof – display call graph profile data
595    groff – front-end for the groff document formatting system
596    grog – guess options for groff command
597    grops – PostScript driver for groff
598    grotty – groff driver for typewriter-like devices
599    groups – print the groups a user is in
600    growisofs – combined genisoimage frontend/DVD recording program.
601    grub-bin2h – convert a binary file to a C header
602    grub-editenv – edit GRUB environment block
603    grub-fstest – debug tool for GRUB filesystem drivers
604    grub-menulst2cfg – transform legacy menu.lst into grub.cfg
605    grub-mkfont – make GRUB font files
606    grub-mkimage – make a bootable image of GRUB
607    grub-mklayout – generate a GRUB keyboard layout file
608    grub-mkpasswd-pbkdf2 – generate hashed password for GRUB
609    grub-mkrelpath – make a system path relative to its root
610    grub-mkrescue – make a GRUB rescue image
611    grub-mount – export GRUB filesystem with FUSE
612    grub-script-check – check grub.cfg for syntax errors
613    gs – Ghostscript (PostScript and PDF language interpreter and previewer)
614    gslp – Format and print text using ghostscript
615    gslp – Format and print text using ghostscript
616    gslp – Format and print text using ghostscript
617    gsettings – GSettings configuration tool
618    gsettings-data-convert – GConf to GSettings data migration
619    gsettings-schema-convert – GConf to GSettings schema conversion
620    gslp – Format and print text using ghostscript
621    gslp – Format and print text using ghostscript
622    gsnd – Run ghostscript (PostScript and PDF engine) without display
623    gst-feedback – generate debug info for GStreamer bug reports
624    gst-inspect – print info about a GStreamer plugin or element
625    gst-install – installs missing GStreamer plugins
626    gst-launch – build and run a GStreamer pipeline
627    gstreamer-properties – Multimedia systems selector
628    gst-typefind – print MIME type of file
629    gst-visualise – Run a GStreamer pipeline to display an audio visualisation
630    gst-inspect – print info about a GStreamer plugin or element
631    gst-xmllaunch – build and run a GStreamer pipeline from an XML serialization
632    tbl – format tables for troff
633    gtf – calculate VESA GTF mode lines
634    gtk-query-immodules-2.0 – Input method module registration utility
635    gtk-update-icon-cache – Icon theme caching utility
636    gtk-window-decorator – Compiz window decorator using the Gtk toolkit
637    gucharmap – Unicode character picker and font browser
638    Gwibber – Microblogging client for GNOME
639    h2ph – convert .h C header files to .ph Perl header files
640    h2xs – convert .h C header files to Perl extensions
641    hcitool – configure Bluetooth connections
642    head – output the first part of files
643    lwp-request, GET, POST, HEAD – Simple command line user agent
644    helpztags – generate the help tags file for directory
645    host – DNS lookup utility
646    hostid – print the numeric identifier for the current host
647    hp-align – Printer Cartridge Alignment Utility
648    hp-check – Dependency/Version Check Utility
649    hp-clean – Printer Cartridge Cleaning Utility
650    hp-colorcal – Printer Cartridge Color Calibration Utility
651    hp-firmware – Firmware Download Utility
652    cense, or # (at your option) any later version. # # This program
653    hpijs – HP IJS server for the GhostScript IJS client driver
654    hp-info – Device Information Utility
655    hp-levels – Supply Levels Utility
656    hp-makeuri – Device URI Creation Utility
657    hp-pkservice – Policy Kit Service
658    hp-plugin – Plugin Download and Install Utility
659    er driver framework HPLIP into your system. This requires admin‐
660    hp-probe – Printer Discovery Utility
661    hp-query – Model Query Utility
662    hp-scan – Scan Utility
663    hp-setup – Printer/Fax Setup Utility
664    hp-testpage – Testpage Print Utility
665    hp-timedate – Time/Date Utility
666    hp-unload – Photo Card Access Utility
667    htdbm – Manipulate DBM password databases
668    htdigest – manage user files for digest authentication
669    htpasswd – Manage user files for basic authentication
670    setarch – change reported architecture in new program environment and set per‐
671    ibus-daemon – Intelligent Input Bus for Linux / Unix OS
672    ibus-setup – configuration program for ibus
673    dation; either # version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option)
674    iceauth – ICE authority file utility
675    ico – animate an icosahedron or other polyhedron
676    iconv – Convert encoding of given files from one encoding to another
677    id – print real and effective user and group IDs
678    iecset – Set or dump IEC958 status bits
679    im-switch – set up input method for X Window
680    info – read Info documents
681    info – read Info documents
682    infocmp – compare or print out terminfo descriptions
683    infokey – compile customizations for Info
684    infotocap – convert a terminfo description into a termcap description
685    inputattach – attach a serial line to an input-layer device
686    install – copy files and set attributes
687    install-info – wrapper around GNU install-info
688    instmodsh – A shell to examine installed modules
689    intel_audio_dump – Dumps the Intel GPU registers for HDMI audio setup.
690    intel_bios_dumper – Saves the Intel video BIOS contents to a file.
691    intel_bios_reader – Parses an Intel BIOS and displays many of its tables
692    intel_error_decode – Decodes an Intel GPU dump automatically captured by the
693    intel_gpu_dump – Print out debugging information on the state of the Intel GPU.
694    intel_gpu_top – Display a top-like summary of Intel GPU usage
695    intel_gtt – Dump the contents of an Intel GPU’s GTT
696    intel_ – Polls the values of different reports about laptop lid state.
697    intel_reg_dumper – Decode a bunch of Intel GPU registers for debugging
698    intel_reg_read – Reads an Intel GPU register value
699    intel_reg_write – Set an Intel GPU register to a value
700    intel_stepping – Display the stepping information for an Intel GPU
701    intel_upload_blit_large – microbenchmark of Intel GPU performance
702    intel_upload_blit_large_gtt – microbenchmark of Intel GPU performance
703    intel_upload_blit_large_map – microbenchmark of Intel GPU performance
704    intel_upload_blit_small – microbenchmark of Intel GPU performance
705    vest.defs.GETTEXT_PACKAGE, invest.defs.GNOMELOCALEDIR) get‐
706    ionice – get/set program io scheduling class and priority
707    ipcmk – create various ipc resources
708    ipcrm – remove a message queue, semaphore set or shared memory id
709    ipcs – provide information on ipc facilities
710    iproxy – proxy that enables tcp service access to iPhone/iPod
711    iptables-xml — Convert iptables-save format to XML
712    devdump, isoinfo, isovfy, isodump – Utility programs for dumping and verifying
713    isohybrid – Postprocess ISO images for hybrid mode
714    isohybrid.pl – Postprocess ISO images for hybrid mode (Perl)
715    devdump, isoinfo, isovfy, isodump – Utility programs for dumping and verifying
716    devdump, isoinfo, isovfy, isodump – Utility programs for dumping and verifying
717    ispell-wrapper – smart wrapper for ispell
718    mandLine BINARY_LOCATION=/usr/bin/itweb‐settings PRO‐
719    java – the Java application launcher
720    join – join lines of two files on a common field
721    keytool – Key and Certificate Management Tool
722    killall – kill processes by
723    koi8rxterm – X terminal emulator for KOI8-R environments
724    l2ping – Send L2CAP echo request and receive answer
725    l2test – L2CAP testing
726    last, lastb – show listing of last logged in users
727    last, lastb – show listing of last logged in users
728    lastlog – reports the most recent login of all users or of a given user
729    lcf – Determine which of the historical versions of a config is installed
730    ld – The GNU linker
731    ld – The GNU linker
732    ldd – print shared library dependencies
733    less – opposite of more
734    lessecho – expand metacharacters
735    lessfile, lesspipe – “input preprocessor” for less.
736    lesskey – specify key bindings for less
737    lessfile, lesspipe – “input preprocessor” for less.
738    lexgrog – parse header information in man pages
739    lftp – Sophisticated file transfer program
740    lftpget – get a file with lftp(1)
741    libnetcfg – configure libnet
742    libreoffice – LibreOffice office suite
743    line – read one line
744    link – call the link function to create a link to a file
745    lintian – Static analysis tool for Debian packages
746    lintian-info – give detailed information about Lintian’s error tags
747    setarch – change reported architecture in new program environment and set per‐
748    listres – list resources in widgets
749    lnstat – unified linux network statistics
750    loadkeys – load keyboard translation tables
751    loadunimap – load the kernel unicode-to-font mapping table
752    libreoffice – LibreOffice office suite
753    locale – Get locale-specific information.
754    localedef – compile locale definition files
755    locate – find files by
756    lockfile-progs – command-line programs to safely lock and unlock files and mail‐
757    libreoffice – LibreOffice office suite
758    log – print user´s login
759    logresolve – Resolve IP-addresses to hosts in Apache log files
760    libreoffice – LibreOffice office suite
761    lp – print files
762    lpoptions – display or set printer options and defaults
763    lppasswd – add, change, or delete digest passwords.
764    lpq – show printer queue status
765    lpr – print files
766    lprm – cancel print jobs
767    lpstat – print cups status information
768    lsattr – list file attributes on a Linux second extended file system
769    lsb_release – print distribution-specific information
770    lscpu – CPU architecture information helper
771    lshw – list hardware
772    lsinitramfs – list content of an initramfs image
773    lsof – list open files
774    lspci – list all PCI devices
775    lspgpot – extracts the ownertrust values from PGP keyrings and list them in
776    lss16toppm — Convert an LSS-16 image to PPM
777    lsusb – list USB devices
778    ltrace – A library call tracer
779    luit – Locale and ISO 2022 support for Unicode terminals
780    lwp-download – Fetch large files from the web
781    lwp-dump – See what headers and content is returned for a URL
782    lwp-mirror – Simple mirror utility
783    lwp-request, GET, POST, HEAD – Simple command line user agent
784    lwp-rget – Retrieve web documents recursively
785    lxterm – locale-sensitive wrapper for xterm
786    lz – gunzips and shows a listing of a gzip’d tar’d archive
787    lzma, unlzma, lzcat – LZMA compression and decompression tool
788    lzmainfo – show information stored in the .lzma file header
789    magnifier – GNOME Magnifier (gnome-mag)
790    make – GNU make utility to maintain groups of programs
791    make_method – Turn Perl code into an XML description for RPC::XML::Server
792    mako-render – renders Mako templates
793    man – an interface to the on-line reference manuals
794    mandb – create or update the manual page index caches
795    manhole – Connect to a Twisted Manhole service
796    manpath – determine search path for manual pages
797    mapscrn – load screen output mapping table
798    mattrib – change MSDOS file attribute flags
799    mawk – pattern scanning and text processing language
800    mbadblocks – tests a floppy disk, and marks the bad blocks in the FAT
801    mcat – dump raw disk image
802    mcd – change MSDOS directory
803    mcheck – verify all files on an MS-DOS formatted disk
804    mcomp – Compares two files using mtools
805    mcookie – generate magic cookies for xauth
806    mcopy – copy MSDOS files to/from Unix
807    mc-tool – manipulate Mission Control accounts from the command line
808    mc-wait-for- – run until a D-Bus  appears on the session bus
809    md5pass – Create an MD5 password hash
810    md5sum – compute and check MD5 message digest
811    mdel – delete an MSDOS file
812    mdeltree – recursively delete an MSDOS directory and its contents
813    mdir – display an MSDOS directory
814    mdu – display the amount of space occupied by an MSDOS directory
815    memdiskfind – utility to search for a MEMDISK instance
816    mesg – control write access to your terminal
817    METACITY – minimal GTK2 Window Manager
818    METACITY-MESSAGE – a command to send a message to Metacity
819    metacity-theme-viewer – view metacity themes
820    metacity-window-demo – demo of window features
821    mformat – add an MSDOS filesystem to a low-level formatted floppy disk
822    mimeopen – Open files by mimetype
823    mimetype – Determine file type
824    min12xxw – Convert pbmraw streams to Minolta PagePro 12xxW languages
825    minfo – print the parameters of a MSDOS filesystem
826    mkdiskimage – Create a blank MS-DOS formatted hard disk image
827    mkfifo – make FIFOs (d pipes)
828    mkfontdir – create an index of X font files in a directory
829    mkfontscale – create an index of scalable font files for X
830    mkmanifest – makes list of file s and their DOS 8+3 equivalent
831    mk_modmap – translate a Linux keytable file into an xmodmap file
832    mkpasswd – Overfeatured front end to crypt(3)
833    mktap – create twisted.servers
834    mkzftree – Create a zisofs/RockRidge compressed file tree
835    mlabel – make an MSDOS volume label
836    locate – find files by
837    mmd – make an MSDOS subdirectory
838    mmount – mount an MSDOS disk
839    mmove – move or re an MSDOS file or subdirectory
840    mono – Mono’s ECMA-CLI native code generator (Just-in-Time and Ahead-of-Time)
841    mousetweaks – Accessibility enhancements for pointing devices
842    mpartition – partition an MSDOS hard disk
843    mrd – remove an MSDOS subdirectory
844    mren – re an existing MSDOS file
845    mscompress – compress data using LZ77 algorithm
846    msexpand – decompress data compressed using mscompress(1) or COMPRESS.EXE
847    msgattrib – attribute matching and manipulation on message catalog
848    msgcat – combines several message catalogs
849    msgcmp – compare message catalog and template
850    msgcomm – match two message catalogs
851    msgconv – character set conversion for message catalog
852    msgen – create English message catalog
853    msgexec – process translations of message catalog
854    msgfilter – edit translations of message catalog
855    msgfmt – compile message catalog to binary format
856    msggrep – pattern matching on message catalog
857    msginit – initialize a message catalog
858    msgmerge – merge message catalog and template
859    msgunfmt – uncompile message catalog from binary format
860    msguniq – unify duplicate translations in message catalog
861    mshowfat – shows FAT clusters allocated to file
862    mtools – utilities to access DOS disks in Unix.
863    mtoolstest – tests and displays the configuration
864    mtr – a network diagnostic tool
865    mtrace – Interpret output from MALLOC_TRACE
866    mtype – display contents of an MSDOS file
867    Banshee – Media Management and Playback application
868    mxtar – Wrapper for using GNU tar directly from a floppy disk
869    mzip – change protection mode and eject disk on Zip/Jaz drive
870    i – follow a path until a terminal point is found
871    nano – Nano’s ANOther editor, an enhanced free Pico clone
872    nautilus – the GNOME File Manager
873    nautilus-connect-server – To Access a remote server
874    nautilus-file-management-properties – File Management Preferences
875    nautilus-sendto – convenience application to send a file via email or instant
876    mawk – pattern scanning and text processing language
877    ncurses5-config – helper script for ncurses libraries
878    ncursesw5-config – helper script for ncurses libraries
879    neqn – format equations for ascii output
880    net – Tool for administration of Samba and remote CIFS servers.
881    net-snmp-config – returns information about installed net-snmp libraries and
882    newgrp – log in to a new group
883    ngettext – translate message and choose plural form
884    nice – run a program with modified scheduling priority
885    nl – number lines of files
886    nm – list symbols from object files
887    nmblookup – NetBIOS over TCP/IP client used to lookup NetBIOS s
888    nmcli – command-line tool for controlling NetworkManager
889    nm-online – ask NetworkManager whether the network is connected
890    nm-tool – utility to report NetworkManager state and devices
891    nohup – run a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty
892    nproc – print the number of processing units available
893    nroff – emulate nroff command with groff
894    nslookup – query Internet  servers interactively
895    nstat, rtacct – network statistics tools.
896    nsupdate – Dynamic DNS update utility
897    ntfscat – print NTFS files and streams on the standard output
898    ntfscluster – identify files in a specified region of an NTFS volume.
899    ntfscmp – compare two NTFS filesystems and tell the differences
900    ntfsfix – fix common errors and force Windows to check NTFS
901    ntfsinfo – dump a file’s attributes
902    ntfsls – list directory contents on an NTFS filesystem
903    ntfsmount – Read/Write userspace NTFS driver.
904    obex-data-server – D-Bus service providing OBEX functionality
905    objcopy – copy and translate object files
906    objdump – display information from object files.
907    oclock – round X clock
908    od – dump files in octal and other formats
909    ods-server – minimal OBEX server based on obex-data-server
910    find – search for files in a directory hierarchy
911    omshell – OMAPI Command Shell
912    on_ac_power – test whether computer is running on AC power
913    openssl – OpenSSL command line tool
914    orbd – The Object Request Broker Daemon
915    orca – is a scriptable screen reader and magnifier
916    log_output () { if type log‐output >/dev/null 2>&1; then
917    pabrowse – List PulseAudio sound servers on the network
918    pacat – Play back or record raw or encoded audio streams on a PulseAudio sound
919    pack200 – JAR Packing tool
920    pacmd – Reconfigure a PulseAudio sound server during runtime
921    pactl – Control a running PulseAudio sound server
922    padsp – PulseAudio OSS Wrapper
923    less – opposite of more
924    pacat – Play back or record raw or encoded audio streams on a PulseAudio sound
925    paperconf – print paper configuration informations
926    paplay – Play back audio files on a PulseAudio sound server
927    pacat – Play back or record raw or encoded audio streams on a PulseAudio sound
928    pacat – Play back or record raw or encoded audio streams on a PulseAudio sound
929    parsechangelog – parse Debian changelogs and output them in other formats
930    partx – telling the kernel about presence and numbering of on-disk partitions.
931    passwd – change user password
932    paste – merge lines of files
933    pasuspender – Temporarily suspend PulseAudio
934    patch – apply a diff file to an original
935    pathchk – check whether file s are valid or portable
936    pax11publish – PulseAudio X11 Credential Utility
937    pcimodules – List kernel driver modules available for all currently plugged in
938    pdb2.7 – the Python debugger
939    pdb2.7 – the Python debugger
940    pdf2dsc – generate a PostScript page list of a PDF document
941    pdf2ps – Ghostscript PDF to PostScript translator
942    pdffonts – Portable Document Format (PDF) font analyzer (version 3.00)
943    pdfimages – Portable Document Format (PDF) image extractor (version 3.00)
944    pdfinfo – Portable Document Format (PDF) document information extractor (version
945    pdfopt – Ghostscript PDF Optimizer
946    pdftoabw – convert a pdf file into the abiword format
947    pdftohtml – program to convert PDF files into HTML, XML and PNG images
948    pdftoppm – Portable Document Format (PDF) to Portable Pixmap (PPM) converter
949    pdftops – Portable Document Format (PDF) to PostScript converter (version 3.00)
950    pdftotext – Portable Document Format (PDF) to text converter (version 3.00)
951    peekfd – peek at file descriptors of running processes
952    perl – Practical Extraction and Report Language
953    perl – Practical Extraction and Report Language
954    perlbug – how to submit bug reports on Perl
955    perlivp – Perl Installation Verification Procedure
956    perlbug – how to submit bug reports on Perl
957    pf2afm – Make an AFM file from Postscript (PFB/PFA/PFM) font files using ghost‐
958    pfbtopfa – Convert Postscript .pfb fonts to .pfa format using ghostscript
959    pg – browse pagewise through text files
960    pgrep, pkill – look up or signal processes based on  and other attributes
961    pic – compile pictures for troff or TeX
962    nano – Nano’s ANOther editor, an enhanced free Pico clone
963    piconv — iconv(1), reinvented in perl
964    pinky – lightweight finger
965    pkaction – Get details about a registered action
966    pkcheck – Check whether a process is authorized
967    pkexec – Execute a command as another user
968    pkg-config – Return metainformation about installed libraries
969    pgrep, pkill – look up or signal processes based on  and other attributes
970    pl2pm – Rough tool to translate Perl4 .pl files to Perl5 .pm modules.
971    pon, poff, plog – starts up, shuts down or lists the log of PPP connections
972    pmap – report memory map of a process
973    pm-is-supported – Test whether suspend or hibernate is supported.
974    pnm2ppa – convert portable anymap (PNM) images to HP’s PPA printer format.
975    pod2html – convert .pod files to .html files
976    pod2latex – convert pod documentation to latex format
977    pod2man – Convert POD data to formatted *roff input
978    pod2text – Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text
979    pod2usage – print usage messages from embedded pod docs in files
980    podchecker – check the syntax of POD format documentation files
981    podselect – print selected sections of pod documentation on standard output
982    pon, poff, plog – starts up, shuts down or lists the log of PPP connections
983    pointer-capture-applet – Creates an area on the panel to capture the pointer
984    policytool – PolicyTool Administration GUI Utility
985    pon, poff, plog – starts up, shuts down or lists the log of PPP connections
986    lwp-request, GET, POST, HEAD – Simple command line user agent
987    ppdc – cups ppd compiler
988    ppdhtml – cups html summary generator
989    ppdi – import ppd files
990    ppdmerge – merge ppd files
991    ppdpo – ppd message catalog generator
992    ppmtolss16 — Convert a PPM to an LSS16 image
993    pr – convert text files for printing
994    prezip, preunzip, precat – prefix delta compressor for Aspell
995    preconv – convert encoding of input files to something GNU troff understands
996    re – res multiple files
997    prezip, preunzip, precat – prefix delta compressor for Aspell
998    prezip, preunzip, precat – prefix delta compressor for Aspell
999    prezip-bin – prefix zip delta word list compressor/decompressor
1000    run-mailcap, view, see, edit, compose, print – execute programs via entries in
1001    printafm – Print the metrics from a Postscript font in AFM format using ghost‐
1002    printenv – print all or part of environment
1003    printf – format and print data
1004    protoc – compile protocol buffer description files
1005    prove – Run tests through a TAP harness.
1006    prstat – print statistics of a process
1007    ps2ascii – Ghostscript translator from PostScript or PDF to ASCII
1008    ps2epsi – generate conforming Encapsulated PostScript
1009    ps2pdf – Convert PostScript to PDF using ghostscript
1010    ps2pdfwr – Convert PostScript to PDF without specifying CompatibilityLevel,
1011    ps2ps, eps2eps – Ghostscript PostScript “distiller”
1012    psed – a stream editor
1013    psfaddtable – add a Unicode character table to a console font
1014    psfgettable – extract the embedded Unicode character table from a console font
1015    psfstriptable – remove the embedded Unicode character table from a console font
1016    psfxtable – handle Unicode character tables for console fonts
1017    pstree – display a tree of processes
1018    c2ph, pstruct – Dump C structures as generated from “cc -g -S” stabs
1019    ptar – a tar-like program written in perl
1020    ptardiff – program that diffs an extracted archive against an unextracted one
1021    ptx – produce a permuted index of file contents
1022    pulseaudio – The PulseAudio Sound System
1023    purple-remote – Send remote commands to Pidgin/Finch
1024    pwdx – report current working directory of a process
1025    pxelinux-options – utility to set PXELINUX hard-coded options.
1026    pycentral – register and build utility for Python packages
1027    pyclean – removes .pyc and .pyo files
1028    pycompile – byte compile Python source files
1029    py_compilefiles – byte-compile python .py files
1030    pydoc2.7 – the Python documentation tool
1031    pygettext – Python equivalent of xgettext(1)
1032    pyhtmlizer – pretty-print Python source as HTML
1033    python – an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language
1034    pyversions – print python version information
1035    ranlib – generate index to archive.
1036    rctest – RFCOMM testing
1037    rdesktop – Remote Desktop Protocol client
1038    rdfpipe – Serialization format converter
1039    readelf – Displays information about ELF files.
1040    readom – read or write data Compact Discs
1041    recode-sr-latin – convert Serbian text from Cyrillic to Latin script
1042    ed, red – text editor
1043    re – res multiple files
1044    re – Re files
1045    tset, reset – terminal initialization
1046    resize – set TERMCAP and terminal settings to current xterm window size
1047    rfcomm – RFCOMM configuration utility
1048    grep, egrep, fgrep, rgrep – print lines matching a pattern
1049    rmid – The Java RMI Activation System Daemon
1050    rmiregistry – The Java Remote Object Registry
1051    routel – list routes with pretty output format
1052    routel – list routes with pretty output format
1053    rpcclient – tool for executing client side MS-RPC functions
1054    rpcgen – an RPC protocol compiler
1055    rpl8 – Firmware loader for DVD drives
1056    rstart – a sample implementation of a Remote Start client
1057    rstartd – a sample implementation of a Remote Start rsh helper
1058    rsync — a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool
1059    lnstat – unified linux network statistics
1060    runcon – run command with specified security context
1061    run-mailcap, view, see, edit, compose, print – execute programs via entries in
1062    run-with-aspell – script to help use GNU Aspell as an ispell replacement
1063    vim – Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor
1064    psed – a stream editor
1065    sane-find-scanner – find SCSI and USB scanners and their device files
1066    savelog – save a log file
1067    scanimage – scan an image
1068    screendump – dump the contents of a virtual console to stdout
1069    scriptreplay – play back typescripts, using timing information
1070    sdiff – side-by-side merge of file differences
1071    sdptool — control and interrogate SDP servers
1072    seahorse – Encryption Key Manager
1073    seahorse-daemon – seahorse pass phrase caching agent
1074    run-mailcap, view, see, edit, compose, print – execute programs via entries in
1075    select-default-iwrap – Selects the user default ispell dictionary for use with
1076    select-editor – select your default sensible-editor from all installed editors
1077    sensible-editor, sensible-pager, sensible-browser – sensible editing, paging,
1078    seq – print a sequence of numbers
1079    servertool – The Java(TM) IDL Server Tool
1080    session-installer – allows applications to easily install and remove software
1081    sessreg – manage utmp/wtmp entries for non-init clients
1082    setarch – change reported architecture in new program environment and set per‐
1083    setkeycodes – load kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table entries
1084    setleds – set the keyboard leds
1085    setlogcons – Send kernel messages to console N
1086    setmetamode – define the keyboard meta key handling
1087    setpci – configure PCI devices
1088    setsid – run a program in a new session
1089    setterm – set terminal attributes
1090    setxkbmap – set the keyboard using the X Keyboard Extension
1091    sg – execute command as different group ID
1092    sha1pass – Create a SHA1 password hash
1093    sha1sum – compute and check SHA1 message digest
1094    sha224sum – compute and check SHA224 message digest
1095    sha256sum – compute and check SHA256 message digest
1096    sha384sum – compute and check SHA384 message digest
1097    sha512sum – compute and check SHA512 message digest
1098    shares-admin – Shared Folders Administration Tool
1099    shasum – Print or Check SHA Checksums
1100    shotwell – a digital photo organizer
1101    showconsolefont – Show the current EGA/VGA console screen font
1102    showfont – font dumper for X font server
1103    showkey – examine the codes sent by the keyboard
1104    showrgb – display an rgb color- database
1105    shred – overwrite a file to hide its contents, and optionally delete it
1106    shuf – generate random permutations
1107    simple-scan – Scanning utility
1108    size – list section sizes and total size.
1109    skill, snice – send a signal or report process status
1110    slabtop – display kernel slab cache information in real time
1111    smbcacls – Set or get ACLs on an NT file or directory s
1112    smbclient – ftp-like client to access SMB/CIFS resources on servers
1113    smbcquotas – Set or get QUOTAs of NTFS 5 shares
1114    smbget – wget-like utility for download files over SMB
1115    smbpasswd – change a user´s SMB password
1116    smbspool – send a print file to an SMB printer
1117    smbtar – shell script for backing up SMB/CIFS shares directly to UNIX tape
1118    smbtree – A text based smb network browser
1119    smproxy – Session Manager Proxy
1120    skill, snice – send a signal or report process status
1121    soelim – interpret .so requests in groff input
1122    file is part of OpenOffice.org. # # OpenOffice.org is free soft‐
1123    software-center – manage software
1124    software-properties-gtk – Software Sources List editor
1125    sort – sort lines of text files
1126    spd-conf – A simple tool for basic configuration of Speech Dispatcher and prob‐
1127    speaker-test – command-line speaker test tone generator for ALSA
1128    diagnostics, splain – produce verbose warning diagnostics
1129    split – split a file into pieces
1130    splitfont – extract characters from an ISO-type font.
1131    sprof – Read and display shared object profiling data
1132    gnome-ssh-askpass – prompts a user for a passphrase using GNOME
1133    ssh-copy-id – install your public key in a remote machine’s authorized_keys
1134    ssh-import-id – retrieve one or more public keys from a public keyserver
1135    startx – initialize an X session
1136    stat – display file or file system status
1137    stdbuf – Run COMMAND, with modified buffering operations for its standard
1138    strace – trace system calls and signals
1139    strings – print the strings of printable characters in files.
1140    strip – Discard symbols from object files.
1141    sudo, sudoedit – execute a command as another user
1142    sudo, sudoedit – execute a command as another user
1143    sudoreplay – replay sudo session logs
1144    sum – checksum and count the blocks in a file
1145    svn – Subversion command line client tool
1146    svnadmin – Subversion repository administration tool
1147    svnlook – Subversion repository examination tool
1148    svnserve – Server for the ‘svn’ repository access method
1149    svnsync – Subversion repository synchronization tool
1150    svnversion – Produce a compact version number for a working copy.
1151    synclient – commandline utility to query and modify Synaptics driver options.
1152    syndaemon – a program that monitors keyboard activity and disables the touchpad
1153    syslinux – install the SYSLINUX bootloader on a FAT filesystem
1154    syslinux2ansi – converts a syslinux-format screen to pc-ansi
1155    system-config-printer – configure a CUPS server
1156    system-config-printer-applet – print job manager
1157    tabs – set tabs on a terminal
1158    tac – concatenate and print files in reverse
1159    tail – output the last part of files
1160    tap2deb – create Debian packages which wrap .tap files
1161    tap2rpm – create RPM packages which wrap .tap files
1162    tapconvert – convert Twisted configurations from one format to another
1163    taskset – retrieve or set a process’s CPU affinity
1164    tbl – format tables for troff
1165    tee – read from standard input and write to standard output and files
1166    test – check file types and compare values
1167    testparm – check an smb.conf configuration file for internal correctness
1168    testparm – check an smb.conf configuration file for internal correctness
1169    tgz – makes a gzip’d tar archive
1170    thunderbird — thunderbird – Mail User Agent (MUA) and newsgroup/RSS client for
1171    tic – the terminfo entry-description compiler
1172    time – run programs and summarize system resource usage
1173    timeout – run a command with a time limit
1174    tload – graphic representation of system load average
1175    Java IDL: Transient Naming Service – tserv
1176    toe – table of (terminfo) entries
1177    tomboy – A simple note-taking application for Gnome
1178    top – display Linux tasks
1179    toshset – manipulate bios and hardware settings of Toshiba laptops
1180    Totem – GNOME desktop movie player based on GStreamer
1181    totem-video-thumbnailer – video thumbnailer for the GNOME desktop
1182    touch – change file timestamps
1183    tput, reset – initialize a terminal or query terminfo database
1184    tr – translate or delete characters
1185    tracepath, tracepath6 – traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this
1186    traceroute6 – traces path to a network host
1187    trial – run unit tests
1188    troff – the troff processor of the groff text formatting system
1189    truncate – shrink or extend the size of a file to the specified size
1190    tsclient – Terminal Server Client supporting XDMCP, VNC and RDP
1191    tset, reset – terminal initialization
1192    tsort – perform topological sort
1193    tty – print the file  of the terminal connected to standard input
1194    twistd – run Twisted applications (TACs, TAPs)
1195    tzselect – view timezones
1196    u1sdtool – command line utility for controlling ubuntuone-syncdaemon
1197    apport-bug, apport-collect – file a bug report using Apport, or update an exist‐
1198    ubuntuone-control-panel-gtk – A GTK UI for managing a Ubuntu One account
1199    free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it # under
1201    ucf – Update Configuration File: preserve user changes in configuration files
1202    ucfr – Update Configuration File Registry: associate packages with configura‐
1203    ucs2any – generate BDF fonts containing subsets of ISO 10646-1 codepoints
1204    udisks – udisks command line tool
1205    udisks-tcp-bridge – udisks TCP/IP bridge
1206    unattended-upgrade – automatic installation of security (and other) upgrades
1207    dation; either version 2 of the License, or (at # your option)
1208    unexpand – convert spaces to tabs
1209    unicode_stop – revert keyboard and console from unicode mode
1210    uniq – report or omit repeated lines
1211    unity – wrapper for starting the unity shell and handling fallback
1212    unlink – call the unlink function to remove the specified file
1213    lzma, unlzma, lzcat – LZMA compression and decompression tool
1214    unopkg – LibreOffice Extension Manager
1215    unpack200 – JAR Unpacking tool
1216    unshare – run program with some spaces unshared from parent
1217    xz, unxz, xzcat, lzma, unlzma, lzcat – Compress or decompress .xz and .lzma
1218    unzip – list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive
1219    unzipsfx – self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives
1220    update-alternatives – maintain symbolic links determining default commands
1221    updatedb – update a database for mlocate
1222    update-desktop-database – Build cache database of MIME types handled by desktop
1223    update-gconf-defaults – generate GConf defaults shipped in Debian packages
1224    update-manager – graphical management of software packages updates
1225    update-pciids – download new version of the PCI ID list
1226    upower – UPower command line tool
1227    uptime – Tell how long the system has been running.
1228    usb-creator-gtk ‐ Ubuntu startup disk creation tool for Gtk+
1229    usb-devices – print USB device details
1230    users – print the user s of users currently logged in to the current host
1231    users-admin – Users Administration Tool
1232    uuidgen – command-line utility to create a new UUID value
1233    uxterm – X terminal emulator for Unicode (UTF-8) environments
1234    uz – gunzips and extracts a gzip’d tar’d archive
1235    vim – Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor
1236    vim – Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor
1237    viewres – graphical class browser for Xt
1238    vim – Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor
1239    vimtutor – the Vim tutor
1240    vinagre – a remote desktop viewer for the GNOME Desktop
1241    vmstat – Report virtual memory statistics
1242    vol – return volume
1243    w – Show who is logged on and what they are doing.
1244    watch – execute a program periodically, showing output fullscreen
1245    wc – print newline, word, and byte counts for each file
1246    wftopfa – Convert a Wadalab base font to Postscript .PFA (or .PFB) format using
1247    Wget – The non-interactive network downloader.
1248    whatis – display manual page descriptions
1249    whereis – locate the binary, source, and manual page files for a command
1250    which – locate a command
1251    whiptail – display dialog boxes from shell scripts
1252    who – show who is logged on
1253    whoami – print effective userid
1254    whois – client for the whois directory service
1255    wodim – write data to optical disk media
1256    word-list-compress – word list compressor/decompressor for GNU Aspell
1257    wpa_passphrase – Generate a WPA PSK from an ASCII passphrase for a SSID
1258    w – Show who is logged on and what they are doing.
1259    X – a portable, network-transparent window system
1260    x11perf – X11 server performance test program
1261    x11perfcomp – X11 server performance comparison program
1262    setarch – change reported architecture in new program environment and set per‐
1263    cpp – The C Preprocessor
1264    gcc – GNU project C and C++ compiler
1265    xargs – build and execute command lines from standard input
1266    xauth – X authority file utility
1267    xbiff – mailbox flag for X
1268    xbrlapi – X11 BrlAPI helper for Linux/Unix
1269    xcalc – scientific calculator for X
1270    xclipboard – X clipboard client
1271    xclock – analog / digital clock for X
1272    xcmsdb – Device Color Characterization utility for X Color Management System
1273    xconsole – monitor system console messages with X
1274    xcursorgen – create an X cursor file from a collection of PNG images
1275    xcutsel – interchange between cut buffer and selection
1276    xdg-desktop-icon – command line tool for (un)installing icons to the desktop
1277    xdg-desktop-menu – command line tool for (un)installing desktop menu items
1278    xdg-email – command line tool for sending mail using the user’s preferred e-mail
1279    xdg-icon-resource – command line tool for (un)installing icon resources
1280    xdg-mime – command line tool for querying information about file type handling
1281    xdg-open – opens a file or URL in the user’s preferred application
1282    xdg-screensaver – command line tool for controlling the screensaver
1283    xdg-settings – get various settings from the desktop environment
1284    xditview – display ditroff output
1285    xdpyinfo – display information utility for X
1286    xdriinfo – query configuration information of DRI drivers
1287    xedit – simple text editor for X
1288    xev – print contents of X events
1289    xeyes – a follow the mouse X demo
1290    xfd – display all the characters in an X font
1291    xfontsel – point and click selection of X11 font s
1292    xfsinfo – X font server information utility
1293    xgamma – Alter a monitor’s gamma correction through the X server
1294    xgc – X graphics demo
1295    xgettext – extract gettext strings from source
1296    xhost – server access control program for X
1297    xinit – X Window System initializer
1298    xinput – utility to configure and test X input devices
1299    xkbbell – XKB extension user utility
1300    xkbcomp – compile XKB keyboard description
1301    xkbevd – XKB event daemon
1302    xkbprint – print an XKB keyboard description
1303    xkbvleds – XKB extension user utility
1304    xkbwatch – XKB extension user utility
1305    xkill – kill a client by its X resource
1306    xload – system load average display for X
1307    xlogo – X Window System logo
1308    xlsatoms – list interned atoms defined on server
1309    xlsclients – list client applications running on a display
1310    xlsfonts – server font list displayer for X
1311    xmag – magnify parts of the screen
1312    xman – Manual page display program for the X Window System
1313    xmessage – display a message or query in a window (X-based /bin/echo)
1314    xml2po – program to create a PO-template file from a DocBook XML file and merge
1315    xmlcatalog – Command line tool to parse and manipulate XML or SGML catalog
1316    xmllint – command line XML tool
1317    xmodmap – utility for modifying keymaps and pointer button mappings in X
1318    xmore – plain text display program for the X Window System
1319    Xorg – X11R7 X server
1320    xpath – a script to query XPath statements in XML documents.
1321    xprop – property displayer for X
1322    xrandr – primitive command line interface to RandR extension
1323    xrdb – X server resource database utility
1324    xrefresh – refresh all or part of an X screen
1325    xscreensaver-getimage – put some randomly-selected image on the root window
1326    xscreensaver-getimage-file – put a randomly-selected image on the root window
1327    xscreensaver-getimage-video – put a video frame on the root window
1328    xscreensaver-gl-helper – figure out which X visual to use for GL programs
1329    xscreensaver-text – prints some text to stdout, for use by screen savers.
1330    gnome-session – Start the GNOME desktop environment
1331    xset – user preference utility for X
1332    xsetmode – set the mode for an X Input device
1333    xsetpointer – set an X Input device as the main pointer
1334    xsetroot – root window parameter setting utility for X
1335    xsetwacom – commandline utility to query and modify __driver__ driver set‐
1336    xsltproc – command line XSLT processor
1337    xsm – X Session Manager
1338    xstdcmap – X standard colormap utility
1339    xsubpp – compiler to convert Perl XS code into C code
1340    xterm – terminal emulator for X
1341    gnome-terminal — is a terminal emulation application.
1342    xvidtune – video mode tuner for Xorg
1343    xvinfo – Print out X-Video extension adaptor information
1344    xwd – dump an image of an X window
1345    METACITY – minimal GTK2 Window Manager
1346    xwininfo – window information utility for X
1347    xwud – image displayer for X
1348    temporary profiles used during alpha and beta phases.
1349    xxd – make a hexdump or do the reverse.
1350    xz, unxz, xzcat, lzma, unlzma, lzcat – Compress or decompress .xz and .lzma
1351    xz, unxz, xzcat, lzma, unlzma, lzcat – Compress or decompress .xz and .lzma
1352    xzcmp, xzdiff, lzcmp, lzdiff – compare compressed files
1353    xzcmp, xzdiff, lzcmp, lzdiff – compare compressed files
1354    xzgrep – search compressed files for a regular expression
1355    xzgrep – search compressed files for a regular expression
1356    xzgrep – search compressed files for a regular expression
1357    xzless, lzless – view xz or lzma compressed (text) files
1358    xzmore, lzmore – view xz or lzma compressed (text) files
1359    yelp — browse system documentation
1360    yes – output a string repeatedly until killed
1361    zdump – time zone dumper
1362    zeitgeist-daemon – D-Bus interface providing a log of activities
1363    zeitgeist-datahub – passive loggers for Zeitgeist
1364    zenity – display GTK+ dialogs
1365    zip – package and compress (archive) files
1366    zipcloak – encrypt entries in a zipfile
1367    zipgrep – search files in a ZIP archive for lines matching a pattern
1368    zipinfo – list detailed information about a ZIP archive
1369    zipnote – write the comments in zipfile to stdout, edit comments and re
1370    zipsplit – split a zipfile into smaller zipfiles
1371    zsoelim – satisfy .so requests in roff input
1372    acpi_available – test whether ACPI subsystem is available
1373    agetty – alternative Linux getty
1374    alsactl – advanced controls for ALSA soundcard driver
1375    apm_available – test whether APM subsystem is available
1376    apparmor_parser – loads AppArmor profiles into the kernel
1377    badblocks – search a device for bad blocks
1378    blkid – command-line utility to locate/print block device attributes
1379    blockdev – call block device ioctls from the command line
1380    bootlogd – record boot messages
1381    brltty – refreshable braille display driver for Linux/Unix
1382    cfdisk – Curses/slang based disk partition table manipulator for Linux
1383    crda – send to the kernel a wireless regulatory domain for a given ISO / IEC
1384    ctrlaltdel – set the function of the Ctrl-Alt-Del combination
1385    debugfs – ext2/ext3/ext4 file system debugger
1386    depmod – program to generate modules.dep and map files.
1387    dhclient – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Client
1388    dhclient – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Client
1389    dhclient-script – DHCP client network configuration script
1390    dmsetup – low level logical volume management
1391    dosfsck – check and repair MS-DOS file systems
1392    dosfslabel – set or get a MS-DOS filesystem label
1393    dumpe2fs – dump ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem information
1394    e2fsck – check a Linux ext2/ext3/ext4 file system
1395    e2image – Save critical ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem metadata to a file
1396    e2label – Change the label on an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem
1397    e2undo – Replay an undo log for an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem
1398    fdisk – Partition table manipulator for Linux
1399    findfs – Find a filesystem by label or UUID
1400    fsck – check and repair a Linux file system
1401    e2fsck – check a Linux ext2/ext3/ext4 file system
1402    e2fsck – check a Linux ext2/ext3/ext4 file system
1403    e2fsck – check a Linux ext2/ext3/ext4 file system
1404    e2fsck – check a Linux ext2/ext3/ext4 file system
1405    fsck.minix – a file system consistency checker for Linux
1406    dosfsck – check and repair MS-DOS file systems
1407    fsck.nfs – Dummy fsck.nfs script that always returns success.
1408    dosfsck – check and repair MS-DOS file systems
1409    fstab-decode – run a command with fstab-encoded arguments
1410    agetty – alternative Linux getty
1411    reboot, halt, poweroff – reboot or stop the system
1412    hdparm – get/set SATA/IDE device parameters
1413    hwclock – query and set the hardware clock (RTC)
1414    ifconfig – configure a network interface
1415    ifup – bring a network interface up
1416    init – Upstart process management daemon
1417    initctl – init daemon control tool
1418    insmod – simple program to insert a module into the Linux Kernel
1419    insserv – Enable an installed system init script
1420    installkernel – install a new kernel image
1421    ip – show / manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels
1422    ip6tables — IPv6 packet filter administration
1423    ip6tables-restore — Restore IPv6 Tables
1424    ip6tables-save — dump iptables rules to stdout
1425    isosize – outputs the length of an iso9660 file system
1426    iwconfig – configure a wireless network interface
1427    iwevent – Display Wireless Events generated by drivers and setting changes
1428    iwgetid – Report ESSID, NWID or AP/Cell Address of wireless network
1429    iwlist – Get more detailed wireless information from a wireless interface
1430    iwpriv – configure optionals (private) parameters of a wireless network inter‐
1431    iwspy – Get wireless statistics from specific nodes
1432    kbdrate – reset the keyboard repeat rate and delay time
1433    killall5 — send a signal to all processes.
1434    ldconfig – configure dynamic linker run-time bindings
1435    logsave – save the output of a command in a logfile
1436    losetup – set up and control loop devices
1437    lsmod – program to show the status of modules in the Linux Kernel
1438    pccardctl – PCMCIA card control utility
1439    MAKEDEV – create devices
1440    mii-tool – view, manipulate media-independent interface status
1441    mkdosfs – create an MS-DOS file system under Linux
1442    mke2fs – create an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem
1443    mkfs – build a Linux file system
1444    mkfs.bfs – make an SCO bfs filesystem
1445    mke2fs – create an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem
1446    mke2fs – create an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem
1447    mke2fs – create an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem
1448    mke2fs – create an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem
1449    mkfs.minix – make a Linux MINIX filesystem
1450    mkdosfs – create an MS-DOS file system under Linux
1451    mkntfs – create an NTFS file system
1452    mkdosfs – create an MS-DOS file system under Linux
1453    mkhomedir_helper – Helper binary that creates home directories
1454    mkswap – set up a Linux swap area
1455    modinfo – program to show information about a Linux Kernel module
1456    modprobe – program to add and remove modules from the Linux Kernel
1457    mountall – Mount filesystems during boot
1458    ntfs-3g – Third Generation Read/Write NTFS Driver
1459    ntfsmount – Read/Write userspace NTFS driver.
1460    if –  network interfaces based on MAC addresses
1461    on_ac_power – test whether computer is running on AC power
1462    pam_tally – The login counter (tallying) module
1463    pam_tally2 – The login counter (tallying) module
1464    GNU Parted – a partition manipulation program
1465    partprobe – inform the OS of partition table changes
1466    pccardctl – PCMCIA card control utility
1467    pivot_root – change the root file system
1468    plipconfig – fine tune PLIP device parameters
1469    reboot, halt, poweroff – reboot or stop the system
1470    rarp – manipulate the system RARP table
1471    raw – bind a Linux raw character device
1472    reboot, halt, poweroff – reboot or stop the system
1473    regdbdump – parse and print out regulatory rules file
1474    initctl – init daemon control tool
1475    resize2fs – ext2/ext3/ext4 file system resizer
1476    initctl – init daemon control tool
1477    rfkill – tool for enabling and disabling wireless devices
1478    rmmod – simple program to remove a module from the Linux Kernel
1479    route – show / manipulate the IP routing table
1480    nstat, rtacct – network statistics tools.
1481    rtmon – listens to and monitors RTnetlink
1482    runlevel – output previous and current runlevel
1483    setvtrgb – set the virtual terminal RGB colors
1484    sfdisk – Partition table manipulator for Linux
1485    shadowconfig – toggle shadow passwords on and off
1486    shutdown – bring the system down
1487    slattach – attach a network interface to a serial line
1488    ss – another utility to investigate sockets
1489    initctl – init daemon control tool
1490    startpar – start runlevel scripts in parallel
1491    start-stop-daemon – start and stop system daemon programs
1492    initctl – init daemon control tool
1493    initctl – init daemon control tool
1494    sulogin – Single-user login
1495    swapon, swapoff – enable/disable devices and files for paging and swapping
1496    swapon, swapoff – enable/disable devices and files for paging and swapping
1497    switch_root – switch to another filesystem as the root of the mount tree.
1498    sysctl – configure kernel parameters at runtime
1499    tc – show / manipulate traffic control settings
1500    telinit – change system runlevel
1501    tune2fs – adjust tunable filesystem parameters on ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystems
1502    udevadm – udev management tool
1503    udevd – event managing daemon
1504    unix_chkpwd – Helper binary that verifies the password of the current user
1505    unix_update – Helper binary that updates the password of a given user
1506    upstart-socket-bridge – Bridge between Upstart and sockets
1507    upstart-udev-bridge – Bridge between Upstart and udev
1508    ureadahead – Read files in advance during boot
1509    vstpg, vstpp – VisioBraille file transferring
1510    wipefs – wipe a filesystem signature from a device
1511    wpa_action – wpa_cli action script
1512    wpa_cli – WPA command line client
1513    wpa_supplicant – Wi-Fi Protected Access client and IEEE 802.1X supplicant
1514    bash – GNU Bourne-Again SHell
1515    bzip2, bunzip2 – a block-sorting file compressor, v1.0.4
1516    BusyBox – The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux
1517    bzip2, bunzip2 – a block-sorting file compressor, v1.0.4
1518    bzexe – compress executable files in place
1519    bzip2, bunzip2 – a block-sorting file compressor, v1.0.4
1520    bzip2, bunzip2 – a block-sorting file compressor, v1.0.4
1521    bzmore, bzless – file perusal filter for crt viewing of bzip2 compressed text
1522    bzmore, bzless – file perusal filter for crt viewing of bzip2 compressed text
1523    cat – concatenate files and print on the standard output
1524    chgrp – change group ownership
1525    chmod – change file mode bits
1526    chown – change file owner and group
1527    chvt – change foreground virtual terminal
1528    cp – copy files and directories
1529    cpio – copy files to and from archives
1530    date – print or set the system date and time
1531    dbus-cleanup-sockets – clean up leftover sockets in a directory
1532    dbus-daemon – Message bus daemon
1533    dbus-uuidgen – Utility to generate UUIDs
1534    dd – convert and copy a file
1535    df – report file system disk space usage
1536    dir – list directory contents
1537    dmesg – print or control the kernel ring buffer
1538    host – show or set the system’s host
1539    host – show or set the system’s host
1540    dumpkeys – dump keyboard translation tables
1541    echo – display a line of text
1542    ed, red – text editor
1543    grep, egrep, fgrep, rgrep – print lines matching a pattern
1544    false – do nothing, unsuccessfully
1545    fgconsole – print the number of the active VT.
1546    grep, egrep, fgrep, rgrep – print lines matching a pattern
1547    fuser – identify processes using files or sockets
1548    fusermount – mount FUSE filesystems
1549    grep, egrep, fgrep, rgrep – print lines matching a pattern
1550    gzip, gunzip, zcat – compress or expand files
1551    gzexe – compress executable files in place
1552    gzip, gunzip, zcat – compress or expand files
1553    host – show or set the system’s host
1554    init-checkconf – manual page for init-checkconf
1555    initctl2dot – manual page for initctl2dot
1556    ip – show / manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels
1557    kbd_mode – report or set the keyboard mode
1558    kill – send a signal to a process
1559    less – opposite of more
1560    lessecho – expand metacharacters
1561    lessfile, lesspipe – “input preprocessor” for less.
1562    lesskey – specify key bindings for less
1563    lessfile, lesspipe – “input preprocessor” for less.
1564    ln – make links between files
1565    loadkeys – load keyboard translation tables
1566    login – begin session on the system
1567    ls – list directory contents
1568    lsmod – program to show the status of modules in the Linux Kernel
1569    mkdir – make directories
1570    mknod – make block or character special files
1571    mktemp – create a temporary file or directory
1572    mount – mount a filesystem
1573    mountpoint – see if a directory is a mountpoint
1574    mt – control magnetic tape drive operation
1575    mt – control magnetic tape drive operation
1576    mv – move (re) files
1577    nano – Nano’s ANOther editor, an enhanced free Pico clone
1578    netstat – Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, mas‐
1579    host – show or set the system’s host
1580    ntfs-3g – Third Generation Read/Write NTFS Driver
1581    ntfs-3g.probe – Probe an NTFS volume mountability
1582    ntfs-3g.secaudit – NTFS Security Data Auditing
1583    ntfs-3g.usermap – NTFS Building a User Mapping File
1584    openvt – start a program on a new virtual terminal (VT).
1585    openvt – start a program on a new virtual terminal (VT).
1586    pidof — find the process ID of a running program.
1587    ping, ping6 – send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts
1588    ping, ping6 – send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts
1589    ps – report a snapshot of the current processes.
1590    pwd – print  of current/working directory
1591    rbash – restricted bash, see bash(1)
1592    readlink – print value of a symbolic link or canonical file
1593    rm – remove files or directories
1594    rmdir – remove empty directories
1595    rnano – Restricted mode for Nano’s ANOther editor, an enhanced free Pico clone
1596    run-parts – run scripts or programs in a directory
1597    sed – stream editor for filtering and transforming text
1598    setfont – load EGA/VGA console screen font
1599    setupcon – sets up the font and the keyboard on Linux console
1600    bash – GNU Bourne-Again SHell
1601    sleep – delay for a specified amount of time
1602    stty – change and print terminal line settings
1603    su – change user ID or become superuser
1604    sync – flush file system buffers
1605    tailf – follow the growth of a log file
1606    tempfile – create a temporary file in a safe manner
1607    touch – change file timestamps
1608    true – do nothing, successfully
1609    umount – unmount file systems
1610    u – print system information
1611    gzip, gunzip, zcat – compress or expand files
1612    unicode_start – put keyboard and console in unicode mode
1613    vdir – list directory contents
1614    vmmouse_detect – VMware mouse device autodetection tool
1615    which – locate a command
1616    host – show or set the system’s host
1617    gzip, gunzip, zcat – compress or expand files
1618    zcmp, zdiff – compare compressed files
1619    zgrep – search possibly compressed files for a regular expression
1620    zforce – force a ‘.gz’ extension on all gzip files
1621    zgrep – search possibly compressed files for a regular expression
1622    zmore – file perusal filter for crt viewing of compressed text
1623    znew – recompress .Z files to .gz files

Beginners guide to Terminal Commands (part one)

Coming from an entirely Windows background, the unix terminal continually raised one question in my mind; whats the point? Having gotten used to using it now, i can see the benefits of being in control of everything you are doing, as opposed to allowing an automated process to do the work for you. Here are some basic commands to get started using the terminal, for example, in Ubuntu Linux.

An important part of using the terminal through directories is, to me, visualisation, coming from a windows background it should be easy enough to ‘imagine’ a folder and its contents. Lets start by seeing where you are now on the system, ie what directory are you in?

Open Terminal
Type pwd

This will show you the current directory you are in. Most likely it is /home/tomas, where tomas is your username. Next we will list all the files in the current directory, this is done by typing ‘ls’.

Type ls

You should now see a list of other files and directories ‘below’ the current directory. Let’s now change our directory to Desktop, this is done by typing ‘cd’ followed by the directory you wish to go to. The directory name is case-sensitive.

Type cd Desktop

Now you are in the Desktop directory. Here we will create a directory called ‘newFolder’.

Type mkdir newFolder

Feel free to take a look on your desktop now for your new directory ‘newFolder’. Now lets go into that directory and list its contents.

Type cd newFolder
Type ls

As you should see the directory is empty, as it should be, to navigate up one level (back to Desktop) we use .., thats dot dot. This represents ‘up one level’ and can be used in many respects, in this case:

Type cd ..
Type pwd

The pwd will show /home/tomas/Desktop. This is just a basic guide and there are many more commands to learn at first, more to come in following posts, here are a list of the commands we used and their meanings:

pwd – Print Working Directory (show me where i am)
cd – Change Directory
ls – List the contents of a directory
mkdir – Make a new directory

Coming back to blog

I decided to come back and use this blog as a diary / log of the technical things i am doing and learning every day, the things i see important to write down both for myself and for anyone else who might find it useful. If your reading this and your not me, hello, if you are me; get back to work and stop faffing about reading your own introductions.

I’m Tyler Winklevoss & Facebook was my idea

This week the Winlkevoss brothers,  those guys that claimed to have created Facebook have had a claim threw out of courts. They decided to re-open the case that saw them settle with $65m in cash and shares back in 2008, and it was open and shut by judges. These days it’s not uncommon to see court battle over intelligent property, and to say that we don’t know the full story is to say the least, however I think the twins should be happy with their share of the company and a lump of cash, after all it seems all they did do was come up with an idea, tell someone about it, and spend a lot of days arguing because Zuck actually done something as opposed to talking about doing something.

I wonder could I could claim that Windows 7 was my idea because of all the crash reports I sent from Vista?

“..Fix this, this is crap, why have you got this?…”

In that environment we are essentially the testers for a massively overpriced piece of software, and we are rewarded by getting to pay for the next piece of massively overpriced software.

“ZuckOnIt”